quora网民评论:为什么中国能长期统一儿印度不能?

2018-06-12 21:00:05  阅读次数:

为什么中国能长期统一而印度不能?

 

<a href=http://www.hushiwin.com/ydrkzg/ target=_blank class=infotextkey>印度</a>

 

quora用户评论

Balaji Viswanathan, History buff.历史爰好者

Answered Dec 27,2016 2016年 12月 27号回答

Actually, there are 9 empires that ruled about half or more of present day India. These are Nandas, Mauryas, Guptas, Vardhana [Harsha] empire, Palas, Sultanates, Mughals, Marathas and the British. This is comparable to the number of empires of China who ruled about half or more of present day China. There were also others like Cholas, Satvahanas and Rashtrakutas who ruled significant parts and were quite impactful with their art work.

事实上,曾经有9个帝国统治着当今印度的一半领土或更多„这些帝国有楠达斯、孔雀王朝 、笈多王

朝、瓦尔哈纳(哈沙)帝国、帕拉斯、苏丹国、莫卧儿、马拉松和英国。这相当于统治中国一半或更多 领土的帝国数量。还有一些其它的帝国,比如朱罗国、萨特瓦哈那、罗湿陀罗拘陀,它们曾统治重要地 区,对艺术方面产生深远的影响。

I have taken these charts from John Keay* s India

以下图表来自John Keay的《印度史》一书。

While the premise of the question has been invalidated, there is a broader point. What unified means? Chinese history places a lot of emphasis on the political union. Kings were like gods and due to frequent interruptions, there was a need to keep a strongly centralized system.

虽然问题的前提已经失效,但有一个更广泛的观点。什么叫统一?中国历史上非常重视政治联盟。国 王就橡神一样,由于频繁的中断,需要保持一个强大的集权制度。

In Indian culture, the kings and political systems were less important. Unlike in other civilizations, kings were not even kept at the top of the social order. While you would find so many ancient temples and universities and god statues, there are hardly anything of any king.

印度文化中,国王和政治制度不那么重要。与其他文明不同的是,国王甚至不在社会秩序的顶 端。虽然印度有许多古老的寺庙,大学和神的雕像,但几乎没有任何国王相关的东西。

You could take off a king or even a whole empire and still nothing much would change. This is one reason why India has got fewer revolutions or coups. There was hardly a centralized control that could be easily toppled and made great change.

你可以推翻国王,甚至整个帝国,仍然没有什么会改变。这就是印度很少革命或政变的原因之一。

几乎没有一个中央集权可以轻易推翻和作出巨大的变化。

China was unified politically. India was unified socially. The primary unit of binding India was the caste system. It extended to every corner of India and it formed the legal system, social order, economical division and other ways of coordinating citizens. Sure like any system it had its own tyranny, slavery and corruption. But, it was a governing system.

中国是政治层面的统一,印度是社会层面的统一。连结印度人民的主要是种姓制度。它延伸到印度 的每一个角落,形成了法律制度、社会秩序、经济分工和其他协调公民的方式。当然,像任何制度一样, 它有自己的暴政,奴隶制和腐败。不管怎样,这是_个统治体系。

There are also other unifying attributes such as religion and literature. Hinduism/Buddhis rd^inism spread to every corner and the epics Ramayana/Mahabharata distinctly identified the Indian culture.

还有其他统一的属性,比如宗教和文学。印度教/佛教/耆那教墓延到每一个角落,史诗《罗摩衍 那》和《摩诃婆罗多》鲜明地印证了印度文化。

The difference between India and China is similar to that of the difference between Greece

and Rome. This is why Indian and Greek civilizations are compared a lot, while China is often compared with Rome. Greek civilization was hardly united politically. However, culturally there was a strong cohesion – united by language, philosophy and epics. Their competitor Romans were known for large empires and strong political controls. The same is true for China.

印度和中国的差异与希腊和罗马的差异是相似的。这就是为什么印度和希腊文明被比较了很多,而 中国经常与罗马进行比较。希腊文明在政治上几乎没有统一过。不过,它在文化上,语言、哲学和史i寺 方面都有很强的凝聚力。他们的对手罗马人以大型帝国和强有力的政治统治而闻名。中国亦是如此。

Bharath Bhat, Servant at Global Populace (1987-present) GlobalPopulace的服务员(1987-现

在)

Answered Dec 30, 2016 201阵12月 30号回答

Qin’s wars of unification – Wikipedia

奏朝统一战争-维基百科

World History/The Unification of China

世界史/中国的统_

The Unification of China

中国的统一

卡利年代-维基百科

Kali Yuga – Wikipedia

spiritually, militarily or monetarily or by any other means.

每一次统一需要巨大的努力,无论是精神上,军事上,金钱上,还是S他方面。

In India, not unifying the nation has lead to diversity in the nation. Even at the time of Mauryan empire there were Ganarajya (meaning autonomous states). Today we see unity among Indians even in the event of diversity. What is important is Indians always have unified their soul with god & will continue to do so.

印度,它的不统一,形成了了国家的多样性。即使在孔雀王朝时期,也有自治州。今天,即使在多 样性的情况下,我们也看到了印度人的团结。重要的是印度人总是把自己的灵魂与上帝统一起来,并将 继续这样做。

Yes, unification of a nation is important mainly for security and economic reasons, but not many rulers wanted to enforce their say on Jambudweep. Hence, there were not many unification attempts.

是的,一个国家的统一主要是出于安全和经济的原因,但没有多少统治者想在上Jambiidweep强调 自己的言论。发表自己的言论。因此,没有多少统一的尝试。

Remember, India is region where gods have ruled (Ref.: Ramayan and Mahabharata) and Indians are descendants of gods. Yes, we are spiritually oriented and believe “Whatever happens, happens for good” and “If we don1 t wrong on other, then nothing wrong will happen to us as well”.

请记住,印度是神所统治的地区(参考文献:罗摩衍那和摩诃婆罗多),印第安人是神的后裔。是的, 我们是精神导向,相信”无论发生什么事,都是好事”,”如果我们没有错,那么我扪也不会有什么错的事情 发生。

We have braved many a invasions and are still standing strong. Today we are the 3rd strongest military with the top two militaries being our ally. It is this inherent resistance, persistence and courage that you will see India marching from victory to victory and peace t o peace in the near future.

我们经历多次入侵,,仍然坚强。今无我们的军队世界第三,前两位是我们的盟友。在不久的将来, 你将看到印度在这样的坚持,毅力和勇气下走向胜利和和平。

HOPE…. this helps.

希望有帮助……

Hisey Patton, former Senior Geologist/Manager (2004-2015).

Hisey Patton前高级地质学家/专家(2004-2015 )。

Answered Dec 28, 2016 201阵12月 28号回答

i am not an 6xp6n m inaia, now6V6「T〇oa Tor inougni. vvnai aiviacs countries is naraerto discern than just looking at a map.

印度我不是专家,而是思想的粮食。单看地图很难区分国家。

Africa has deserts, and disease zones that divide it east to west. The Tetsi fly slowed the migration of animals and people north to south.

非洲自东向西有沙漠区,疾病区。特提斯苍蝇减缓了动物迁徙和人类向南迁徙的速度。

In China, the disease ridden south took a long time to colonize until people built up enough tolerance for settlers to overcome the malarial swamps.

在中国,盲到人民建立足够的宽容帮助殖民者克服拒疾,菌方的殖民进程才得已进行,花费了漫长 的时间。

In South America the mountains and jungles prevented a unification along the lines of the

United States. Simon Bolivar wanted to make a Estados Unidos Amercianos Sud after the Spanish Viceroyships became independent. Just as the Viceroyship boundaries were predicated on geographical barriers, so did the oligarchs found the various independent countries we see there today.

在南美洲,山脉和丛林阻止了美国沿线的统一。西蒙•玻利瓦尔想在西班牙辖区独立后,马上建立美国 联合众国。正如预测辖区边界是地理障碍,寡头执政者们也发现了我们所能看到的那些独立国家各独立国 家也一样也着天然的地理障碍。

So, in India, not only do you have the various geographical boundaries, but you have the religious divisions (Hindu vs Muslim vs Sikh) brought about by invasion or conversion. Throw in the various competing principalities that arose from historical areas of tribal influence.

所以,在印度,不仅有不同的地理分界,还有入侵以及变化形成的各种宗教分支(印度教vs穆斯林 vs锡克人)通过入侵或转换帯来的。以及从历史领域部落中产生的各种相互竞争的君主。

men you neea to appreciate tnat iNiu monarcn ever naa complete control over any country. In the days when news took weeks or months to get from point A to point B, when armies took weeks or months to assemble. When communication might be subject to interpretation through multiple parties, it was impossible for a monarch to enforce his or her will on a nation.

那么,你必须意识到没有君主对任何一个国家都有完全的控制权。在信息需要数周或数月从A点到B 点的曰子里,军队需要数周或数月的时间才能聚集。当沟通可能受到多方解釋时,君主不可能将自己的 意志强加给一个国家。

Control was done by an intricate network of pledges of loyalties and quid pro quo.

控制需要忠城和等价交换的复杂网络实现的。

A kind appointed representatives to rule, control and tax in his name. In exchange his representative was granted a title and hereditary ownership of lands that he could pass down war when his Lord called.

委派一个代表以他的名义统治、控制和纳税。作为交换,他被授予土地所有权和世袭所有权,可以 世袭给他的继承人。作为交换,他承诺效忠賦税,并在他主S时以战争的形式给予援助。

Through out history we see war after war when these barons, princes or earls chose to change allegiance in exchange for a better deal from someone else who felt they had a better claim to the throne than the current heir sitting the throne.

通过历史众看历史,当这些男爵,王子或伯爵选择改变效忠,觉得比起现任国王,其他人可以给予 他们更好的权利时,战争就爆发了。

Tribal loyalties and affiliations were no different in India, and the geography played a part in the divisions. It is hard to enforce your will on a territory that you cannot reach easily or without excess cost. Winning lands and holding them, is only worthwhile if those lands return vaIiip in pyrp<;<; nf thpir rn<;t in winninn anH hnlrlinn W^r<; Arp not frpp or p\/pn rhp^n

印度,部落的忠城度和从属关系并没有什么不同,地理位置也起到分离的作用。在一个你无法轻易 达到或没有实际价值高于成本的领土上执行你的意愿是很难的。只有当这些土地的价值超过持有的成本 时,赢得土地并持有它们,才值得。战争不是免费的,或是廉价的。

That is why the most frequently fought over lands in world history are those that are the most fertile or the richest in mineral wealth.

这就是为什么世界历史上最经常争夺的土地的是那些最肥沃或最富有的矿产财富的土地。

Lets look at Egypt for instance. Egypt has been fought over for time immemorial. It was rich in grain growing areas due to the annual flooding of the Nile. The Greeks took it, then the Romans all for the grain.

比如挨及,埃及自远古以来就经历各种战争。因为尼罗河每年的洪水帯来肥沃泥土,粮食种植面枳 丰富。先是希腊人拿走了它,然后罗马为了稂食而战。

Today it is not valued by much, since it is poor in mineral wealth and greater grain growing areas has superseded it. Instead, desert areas incapable of supporting much in the way of agriculture are now more highly valued due to the mineral riches of Petroleum.

如今它不再受重视,因为它在矿产财富是贫瘠的,并且更大粮食种植区已经取代了它。相反,由于 石油矿产丰富,无法在农业方面撞供大量支持的沙漠地区现在受到了高度重视。

So, applying that to India, you can see which areas might be more highly prized for conquest. Area such as the Spice Coast, or rich agricultural areas.

因此,将其应用到印鼠你可以看到哪些领域可能更被推崇而被征服。比如如香料海岸,或富饶的农业 地区.

Rivers and plains = agricultural productivity which = cities and commerce.

河流和平原=农业生产力=城市和商业.

Mountains, deserts and high plateaus = less sparsely settled and I

ess desirous unless mineral wealth is present.

山地、沙漠和高原=除非矿物财富存在,否则人烟稀少,没有占领的意愿。

Tarkesh Mishra Answered Dec 21, 2016

I do not know much about Chinese history to list the factors that made it united for longer periods. As for India, it was united for all of its history- by culture.

我对中国历史不太了解,无法列出使其长期统一的因素。至于印鼠它的历史是由文化统一而成的.

Why would you think that just because China was united, so should also India or Europe or any other geography?

为什么你会认为仅仅因为中国是统一的,那么印度、欧洲或者其他地方也应该如此吗?

Both China and India are extremely different cultures, different people and different Geography.

中国和印度有截然不同的文化,不同的人民和不同的地形。

India1 s diversity is far more interesting than China if we consider the diversity of its people and geography. And yet what is even more interesting is that almost all of India is quite fertile and inspite of that diversity you could literally have lived in any part of India without having to worry about animosity from locals. People did not hate each other based on looks or faith.

如果我们考虑它的人和地理的多样性,印度的多样性比中国更有趣。然而更有趣的是,几乎所有的

印厦都是相当肥沃的,而且可以说,如果你不必担心当地人的仇很,你就可以茌印厦的任何地方生活。 人们并不是基于外表或信仰而憎恨对方。

Yes, the kings used to come and go and fight each other, but that never affected the common people and the civilisation. Infact almost in majority cases the royality have always remained aloof of the common man’ s life. Most of the times the rulers followed a different religion than the state, or spoke a different language or came from some other region.

是的,国王曾经来来回回打仗,但这从来没有影响到平民百姓和文明。事实上,在大多数情况下, 王室一盲是冷漠的普通人的生活。大多数时候,统治者信仰一种不同于国家的宗教,或者说一种不同的 语言,或者来自另一个地区。

So whether politically united or not, that never stopped Indians from having a united identity. Ideas, culture and religion freely flowed from one region to the other, irrespectively of the changing borders of the various empires.

因此,无论政治上是否团结,这都不会阻止印度人拥有一个统一的身份,思想、文化和宗教自由地从一个 个区域传播到另一个区域,而不只是不同帝国的边界变化。

The differences between India and China, are quite natural, why such diverse cultures have those common elements that’ s the real enigma.

印度和中国之间的差异是很自然的,为什么这种多样的文化有那些共同的元素,那才是真正的谜。

Michel McGill, My parents are WWII veterans.我的父母是二战老兵 Answered Dec 28 , 2017

The spelling written language is one of the factors. China has more dialects than India has languages. Should China use spelling written language, China will have more languages than India.

书面语言的讲写是其中的一个因素。中国的方言比印度的语言多。如果中国使用拼写书面语言,中 国将拥有比印度更多的语言。

Gwydion Madawc Williams, Read a lot about history, and note some general patterns. Gwydion Madawc Williams ,读了很多关于历史的书,发现了一些固有模式。

Answered Jau 4, 2017

Ideology must have mattered. Hinduism sees a diversity of kings as normal. Confucianism thinks there should be a single Empire.

意识形态肯定很重要。印度教认为国王的多样性是正常的。儒学则认为应该只有一个国家。

Tt also hf?lnpd that pv^rvonf? who could mad would mad thf> samf? idf>onrams. pvpn if thf»v

spoke different dialects. In India there are many scripts, phonetic for many languages. The original unity based on Sanskrit was long ago lost.

这也有助于每一个能阅读的人都能阅读相同的文字,即使他们说着不同的方言。在印度,有许多手 稿,许多语言的语音。基于梵文的原始统一早就失去了。

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